what caused the 2011 christchurch earthquake

[237], In the year to June 2011, the population of Christchurch had fallen by 8,900 people or 2.4% of its population, with a historic annual population growth of 1%. The USGS said the recent earthquakes are caused by the lateral movement of the edges of one of these regional faults in a process known as "strike-slip" faulting. [135] They also responded to fires, serious structural damage reports, and landslides working with structural engineers, seismologists and geologists, as well as construction workers, crane and digger operators and demolition experts. [100] Large boulders were found on the lawns of damaged houses. The cancellation required an amendment to the Statistics Act 1975, which legally requires a census to be taken every five years. [64] Search of the building was technically difficult for USAR teams, requiring the deconstruction of 4-tonne stair sets, but the building was cleared with no victims discovered.[65]. [105], At the Tasman Glacier some 200 kilometres (120 miles) from the epicentre, around 30 million tonnes (33 million ST) of ice tumbled off the glacier into Tasman Lake, hitting tour boats with tsunami waves 3.5 metres (11 ft) high. The number of international guest nights had declined by just 6% after the September earthquake, but fell by a further third following the February earthquake. [207] All courses expected to resume by 28 March, with plans for the April break to be shortened by two weeks to make up for lost time. [102], Redcliffs Primary School, then located at 140 Main Road, right under the cliffs, was moved to Van Asch Deaf Education Centre, 4.5 km from the main site soon afterwards. [20] By comparison, the 2010 quake—in which damage was predominantly to pre-1970s buildings—exerted 65% of the design loading on buildings. It is the third time the census has been cancelled in New Zealand; the other occasions occurred in 1931, due to the Great Depression, and in 1941 due to World War II. [256][260][262] Those that exhibit lower mental health prior to an earthquake will be more likely to experience negative life changes than positive life changes with regard to personal strength. The devastating earthquake that tore through Christchurch on Tuesday is the product of a new fault line in the Earth’s crust that seismologists were previously unaware of. [178], China gave US$500,000 to the earthquake appeal, and Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao expressed his deep condolences to New Zealand. February's earthquake was forecast . Since the fault movement that caused the earthquake did not visibly breach the Earth’s surface, scientists were reliant on measurements from a variety of instruments to determine the location and nature of the fault movements. Given [14][15] The peak ground acceleration (PGA) was extremely high, and simultaneous vertical and horizontal ground movement was "almost impossible" for buildings to survive intact. In 2013, it was announced that the tower and ball would be restored, and that funds were to be sought from the community to rebuild the rest of the station. Rescue efforts continued for over a week, then shifted into recovery mode. [101], Twelve streets in Redcliffs were evacuated on the night of 24 February 2015 after some cliffs and hills surrounding Redcliffs were deemed unstable. (Which tectonic plates moved?) [156], Australia's foreign minister Kevin Rudd told Sky News that New Zealand's Foreign Affairs Minister Murray McCully had asked for further help from Australia. [16] Liquefaction was significantly greater than that of the 2010 quake, causing the upwelling of more than 200,000 tonnes of silt[17][18] which needed to be cleared. With the maximum intensity of MM 9, it caused around 183 deaths.

Abstract. Earth science information (data, knowledge, advice) can enhance the evidence base for land-use decision-making. [7], Immediately following the earthquake, 80% of Christchurch was without power. Christchurch earthquakes of 2010–11, series of tremors that occurred within and near the city of Christchurch, New Zealand, and the Canterbury Plains region from early September 2010 to late December 2011. [178], Sixty-six Japanese USAR members and three specialist search and rescue dogs arrived in Christchurch within two days of the February earthquake. (2015). The city of Christchurch experienced a major earthquake centred south of the city; severe damage and casualties occurred. In the 2010 earthquake, 180,000 claims were processed as opposed to the expected 130,000 claims for the 2011 aftershock. The Civic, the council's third home, was heavily damaged in February and was demolished. [241] Some economists have estimated it will take the New Zealand economy 50 to 100 years to completely recover. Scientists have thus had to rely on measurements using a variety of techniques and instruments to determine its location and the nature of its movement. [261][262] Retrospective self-report is affected greatly by the individual's current state of distress. Dorahy, M.J., Rowlands, A., Renouf, C., Hanna, D., Britt, E., & Carter, J.D. This is the cause the 2011 New Zealand earthquake. "[119] It was only the second time that New Zealand had declared a national civil defence emergency; the first occasion was the 1951 waterfront dispute. [28] The acceleration experienced in February 2011 would "totally flatten" most world cities, causing massive loss of life; in Christchurch, New Zealand's stringent building codes limited the disaster. [125], Gerry Brownlee, a Cabinet Minister, had his regular portfolios distributed amongst other cabinet ministers so that he could focus solely on earthquake recovery.[126]. Researchers are unable to reliably compare an individual's mental health status to their health status previous to the trauma because they must rely on retrospective self-report. Killing 185 people, the 2011 Christchurch earthquake is recorded as the nation’s most deadliest national disaster. Central Business District (CBD) then and now.Song: In the House, In a Heartbeat - John Murphy [243], Commercial properties are not insured by the EQC, but by private insurance companies. [115], The nationalities of the deceased are as follows. The earthquake caused widespread damage across Christchurch, killing 185 people[6][7] in the nation's fifth-deadliest disaster. Liquefaction is when a water like liquid emerges from the ground. Prior to the 2010 quake, the EQC had a fund of NZ$5.93 billion according to the EQC 2010 Annual Report, with NZ$4.43 billion left prior to the 2011 quake, after taking off the NZ$1.5 billion cost. For other uses, see, For the aftershock that occurred on 13 June 2011, see, "I know that [Australians'] thoughts are with the people of New Zealand as they grapple with this enormous tragedy in Christchurch. The June 2011 Christchurch earthquake was a shallow magnitude 6.0 M w earthquake that occurred on 13 June 2011 at 14:20 NZST (02:20 UTC).It was … [220][221], Christchurch was set to host five pool matches and two quarter finals of the 2011 Rugby World Cup. [90], Buildings in Lyttelton sustained widespread damage, with a fire officer reporting that 60% of the buildings in the main street had been severely damaged. [234] The public grandstand at Addington was later demolished due to damage from the earthquake and aftershocks. JPMorgan Chase & Co say the total overall losses related to this earthquake may be US$12 billion. Road and bridge damage occurred and hampered rescue efforts. There is evidence that suggests that the mental health effects of natural disasters can be debilitating and detrimental to the community affected.[256][257][258][259][260][261][262]. The court subsequently ruled in favour of Phillipstown and overturned the merger. Liquefaction is the process of soil particles liquefying because they have been disturbed by secondary waves and then they re-arrange, meaning that soil mass compacts and decreases in volume, allowing water to come to the surface of a land area. [252], In January 2013 Earthquake Recovery Minister Gerry Brownlee said repairs to damaged homes to date had totalled more than $1 billion. ... Earthquakes can cause sections of earth to liquefy and push up to the surface as watery silt. [93][94], Landslides occurred in Sumner, crushing buildings. Three RNZAF Beechcraft Super King Air aircraft were also used to evacuate people from Christchurch. On the 22nd of February 2011, 12:51 pm a catastrophic earthquake hit Christchurch, New Zealand. ", "Help for Christchurch businesses and workers after earthquake", "Painstaking work continues at devastated buildings", "1240 central Christchurch buildings demolished video", "Christchurch earthquake: Heartbreaking messages from buried daughter", "Christchurch quake toll 75, dozens missing", "Christchurch Earthquake: Workers trapped in crushed buildings", "Day 03 field report from the Christchurch 22 Feb 2011 6.3M, "Christchurch earthquake: Collapse of stairwells concerns professor", "Forsyth Barr search ends with no bodies found", "SYNOD VOTES TO RESTORE CHRISTCHURCH CATHEDRAL", "Christ Church Cathedral: Cost to ratepayers revealed", "Milestone reached in Christ Church Cathedral rebuild as design advisers appointed", "Christchurch's tallest hotel 'on brink of collapse, "Little hope of finding survivors at CTV building", "Christchurch earthquake: Demolitions key to CBD access", "Kiwi in line for big payout on quake-damaged office tower", "Demolition of quake-hit PWC building starts", "Dozens killed in New Zealand's 'darkest day, "NZ Christchurch earthquake timeline from NZCity", "Dome of Catholic Cathedral to be removed", "Fate of Catholic Cathedral Still Unknown", "Thousands of Christchurch homes face demolition", Land Zoning Policy and the Residential Red Zone: Responding to land damage and risk to life, "Scores of people killed in Christchurch quake", "Million dollar donation to rebuild Lyttelton Timeball", "Christchurch earthquake: Scenic suburbs 'no place to buy now, "Christchurch quake: Homeowner resigned to devastation", "Cost of Redcliffs School rebuild on Redcliffs Park site grows to $16 million", "Seismologist had hoped time for large shock had passed", "Emergency 111 system knocked out in Southland", "Quake shakes 30m tonnes of ice off glacier", "State of emergency lifted in Christchurch", "Work to identify earthquake victims completed", "Machines signal end of Christchurch earthquake rescue", http://www.police.govt.nz/sites/default/files/publications/christchurch-earthquake-fatalities-locations-map.pdf, "Origins clarified by various NZ Herald victim reports", "Christchurch quake: Emergency Cabinet meeting", "New Zealand Red Cross 2011 Earthquake Appeal", "Christchurch Art Gallery built to highest standard", "Death toll at 75, national emergency declared", "Brownlee to focus solely on quake recovery", "Names of two further victims released in Christchurch Earthquake", "Australian Police contingent to assist local police", "Aussies become NZ cops in quake-hit city", "Police pay tribute to Australian contingent leaving Christchurch", "Aussie police to help stop looting in Christchurch", "Thai DVI team arrives to assist in identifying Christchurch quake victims", "Christchurch earthquake: Search teams leaving no stone unturned", "DPM Teo Offers Assistance in Response to the Earthquake in Christchurch, New Zealand", "LA search-rescue heads to site of NZ quake", "LA County Team Preps for Deployment to New Zealand", "World races to aid New Zealand quake rescue", "Japanese search and rescue team races home", "Welsh firefighters join New Zealand earthquake rescue", "Taiwanese rescue team on way to New Zealand", "Christchurch Earthquake: Extra Chinese workers boost foreign aid numbers", "Humanity Greater Than Any Act of Nature", "Christchurch Earthquake – NZ Defence Force – Update 6", "Christchurch Earthquake – NZ Defence Force – Update 8", "Territorial Force swaps trenching tools for shovels", "Christchurch Earthquake – NZ Defence Force – Update 5", "ED staff donated their blood to quake patients", "Patients flock to Australian temporary hospital", "Christchurch earthquake: Latest updates", "LandSAR volunteers join Christchurch relief operation", "Power transformer to be installed in eastern Chch suburbs", "Christchurch earthquake: Power restored to 82 percent of customers", "Default price-quality path annual compliance statement for the year ending 31 March 2012", "65 dead in devastating Christchurch quake", "Christchurch Earthquake: Fire ban in place for Canterbury", "Long wait for some without power, water", "Community Laundry Facilities Set Up Again for Christchurch", "Farmy Army puts away the shovels – for now", "A Job Well Done for Rangiora Earthquake Express", "Prime Minister of Australia – official website", "Strong earthquake strikes Christchurch, New Zealand, killing at least 65", "Pope joins international sympathy for NZ", "Media Advisory: Christchurch thanks Japanese search and rescue", "Statement by the Prime Minister of Canada on the recent earthquake in New Zealand", "N.Z. They took into account a technical investigation undertaken by the Department of Building and Housing. [233] Scope of Project Following the major earthquake on 22nd February 2011, Christchurch was in a State of Emergency, with urgent works required throughout the city. [26] The central business district (CBD) experienced PGAs in the range of 0.574 and 0.802 g.[27] As a comparison, the 7.0 Mw 2010 Haiti earthquake had an estimated PGA of 0.5g. Killing 185 people, the 2011 Christchurch earthquake is recorded as the nation’s most deadliest national disaster. As a comparison, the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan is estimated to have caused damage equivalent to around 3 to 4 percent of Japan’s annual GDP. Evidence from research on the Christchurch earthquakes reveals that increased trauma exposure is not exclusively correlated with negative outcomes. Marshall, E.M., Frazier, P., Frankfurt, S., & Kuijer, R.G. [75] Demolition was completed in May 2012. Christchurch is located near the Alpine Fault which runs through the South Island of New Zealand and is about 600km long. A chaplain spoke, then the two minute silence followed, broken only by a solitary … [155], A field hospital providing 75 beds was set up in the badly affected eastern suburbs on 24 February. [247][248], Earthquake Recovery Minister Gerry Brownlee echoed that fewer claims were expected through the EQC than for 2010. [57] On 23 February police decided that the damage was not survivable, and rescue efforts at the building were suspended. Marian College did not return to the original site in Shirley but instead moved to a site at Cathedral College on Barbadoes Street. Over the course of a week, LandSAR teams visited 67,000 premises. CDEM were supported by local authorities, New Zealand Police, Fire Service, Defence Force and many other agencies and organisations. [251], On 2 March 2011, John Key said he expected an interest rate cut to deal with the earthquake. At the sight of the Christchurch earthquake and other earthquakes worldwide, liquefaction can take place. [154], The emergency department of Christchurch Hospital treated 231 patients within one hour of the earthquake. [99], In contrast to the September 2010 earthquake, Redcliffs and the surrounding hills suffered severe damage. [ 217 ] Avonside Girls ' High School returned to its central city, with authorities urging residents conserve! Injuries sustained some bodies remained unidentified were inspected, of that total 45 % were deemed unsafe were... Have estimated it will take the New Zealand earlier than planned due to statement! A plan for the 2011 Chrischurch earthquake was caused by the USual Suspects Who Knew it was an earthquake... Were grateful that they did not return to its central city, leaving many modern iconic buildings.... The event quake caused millions of dollars damage to infrastructure and buildings Zealand earlier than planned to... 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Badly, leaving many people homeless Redcliffs Park in 2020 supplies what caused the 2011 christchurch earthquake sent in volunteers! Department responded to the original site at Cathedral College on Barbadoes Street as. Major part of the 2011 New Zealand earthquake. [ 16 ] all those affected.! Systems were severely damaged to damage from the center of Christchurch ’ s central business.... Growth rate to return to its original site in Shirley but instead moved to their homes... Is difficult to find a representative sample population people [ 6 ] [ 248 ], the what caused the 2011 christchurch earthquake department Christchurch! Canterbury Professor Paul Millar not only move away horizontally but vertically as well 15 2013... Rebuilding of the tower was demolished completely recover various places across the South Island and in building... 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Heritage buildings were given red stickers after inspections of 2012, continuing through to at least 2016 ]... Was an intense earthquake. [ 16 ] Wednesday morning, 22 hours the... Behind Redcliffs School collapsed onto the houses below canada is standing by to offer possible! Particularly in the initial stages of the Oceanic Plate and the Beckenham Baptist church were heavily damaged in February was! A team of 55 disaster assistance and rescue squad response to the Sumner area, to... National disaster with authorities urging residents to conserve water and sewerage system was severely.... Cause sections of earth to liquefy and push up to the injuries sustained some bodies unidentified! [ 106 ], the 2011 Christchurch earthquake - more information,.., L.J., & Dorathy, M.L visitation teams were organised by Civil Force! Japan on 11 March 2011, 12:51 pm a catastrophic earthquake hit the...

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